Sequencing, quantization, digital effects, sample and hold, pitch bends, string pad, breakbeats, pan, velocities, sound modules, decay, gating, scratching, rasping hi-hat, hook/lick, stab, mix in, mix out, changes in loops, main.
I'll have a go, but I'm hungover so I may not make much sense... And I'll ignore what's already been explained.
Sequencing: Best example is something like CuBase, where you record or program "events" to control the playback of audio segments, MIDI or Virtual Instruments.
Quantitisation: This is a feature in most music software which will move events to the nearest desired beat (this is used in almost all dance music as things being slightly off beat tend not to sound so good). If you recorded a melody in when playing from your keyboard, you'd probably quantitise it afterwards, perhaps to the nearest 16th note beat to get it 100% in time with the beat.
Digital Effects: This would probably mean effects added to the sound either by hardware or a PC, like filters, reverb, distortion, echo, feedback...
String Pad: Has already been explained. I can record some examples if you like from one of my synths.
Breakbeats: Hard to explain, but think of the beat for FireStarter by the Prodigy. That's a breakbeat. Very syncopated and not simple like a dance beat (typically strict on-beat 4/4). Quite often is a result of 2 or more drum patterns being combined.
Pan: This will refer to the channel balance of the audio, so you can pan left, pan right... pretty simple.
Velocities: If this is referring to MIDI then you have 255 possible velocities, if I remember rightly. It's a reference to how hard the note has been struck and therefore how loud the sample/sound will play.
Sound Modules: Typically refers to pieces of MIDI-capable hardware that produces sounds either from samples or by synthesis (sometimes both). So, you could have a controller keyboard (that doesn't make any sound) plugged into a sound module, when you hit a key on the controller, the module senses this input and plays the sound.
Decay: Pretty simple... the time and/or fashion in which a sound fades away. Eg: A bass drum has an almost instant decay, whereas a harp has a long decay.
Gating: IIRC, MIDI speak for a waveform generator that's typically used to trigger other events (eg: volume). Best to google this one I think for explanations. You could gate the volume on/off on a single note to create gaps in the sound, creating a trance like |.|.|...|.|.|
Rasping hi-hat: I think they must be talking about a hi-hat that's been sampled and filtered to give the sound that you hear in a lot of dance tracks?
Stab: I think this must refer to a sound that has a very fast attack and quick decay... the sound comes in and out quickly, like a "stab".
Like I say, I can record some examples of sounds like stabs, pads, hits etc if you like